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Principles of Designing for Humans on edX

2) Principles of Designing for Humans

Retrieval Practice

This was another class where I attempted to use an idea similar to Retrieval Practice while studying the content. Essentially, I would watch a video all the way through and then try and write down anything that I remembered. I would then rewatch the video and stop the video to take notes. I found this to be helpful but it did take more time to “get through” the material. Mid-way through the week, I moved to just stopping the video and taking notes. I picked up the process again in the following weeks. Here are some of my takeaways from the material.

Week 1: Visual Perception and Memory. The visual perception of the human brain is limited. We only have a five degree of central vision range of full focus. Peripheral vision can’t be used for reading it is too out of focus. You must jump around to read. Humans scan pages using eye fixations to move from one word to the next these are called “sa-ka-ds” (saccades). We don’t usually look at the whole page we look at what is most important for us when completing a specific task. Just because something is on a page it does not mean it will be read.

Based on research by Jacob Nielsen the most common pattern of reading on the web is the F shape (for left-to-right languages). Some important principles to remember are:

  • Make important info and actions visible: If something is not visible users can’t interact with it.
  • Leverage how users read: Am I using these patterns?
  • When evaluating ask yourself “did they see it?”, Can they find it? , Did they misunderstand what it meant?

Visual psychology suggests several stages of visual perception. We move from photons to images. The three stages are:

  1. Features
  2. Patterns
  3. Recognizable Objects

According to the course, the Gestalt School of Psychology studies the way that pattern works and created a set of principles on how the eye breaks up the visual field. These principles are:

  • Proximity (nearness means the items are associated)
  • Closure and continuation (we fill in gaps with likely solutions and context helps. Bk means back in the sentence “be right back”)
  • Symmetry (we see something like a single object)
  • Similarity (like things are part of a group)
  • Common area (share a common boundary seen as a group)
  • Common fate (move together those are a different pattern)

Memory

Moving from visual perception to memory requires attention and moving from short-term to long-term memory. Our short-term memory is limited and according to Miller the magic number 7+/-2 items (Miller’s Law 1956). Cowan reduced this number to 4+/-1 (Cowan, 2010). Anything that isn’t retained is lost. Learning happens when we move something from short to long-term memory.

Short-term memory is limited. Here are some UX principles based on this idea. (Attention)

  • Keep lists of options short: Keep within the range of magic numbers
  • Give users tools for reducing options
  • Compare against each other
  • Don’t expect users to remember stuff (from one screen to the next)

There are several ways to transfer something to long-term memory these include association and repetition.

Principles

Learning will work better if the learner can fit the new material into a schema

  • Use metaphors: An example is the shopping cart on Amazon
  • Leverage standards and consistency: Menu structure: Use one system can transfer information to the next.
  • Avoid asking users to memorize information

Prefer recognition over recall

    • Search terms we need to create but Google added autocomplete search terms.

These ideas come from cognitive psychology. I really like these ideas for the principles they provide but I’m not sure we really have all the answers on how the mind and senses work.

Week 2 Norman’s model of Action, the Gulfs of Execution and Evaluation, and Design Principles

In Don Norman’s book The Design of Everyday Things, he describes a seven stage model of action anyone takes to accomplish an outcome. These steps are:

  • Determine a goal
  • Choose a path
  • Act
  • Look at the world for feedback
  • Determine if you were successful
  • Act again

Elaborating on Norman’s model of actions the model can be divided into two parts: actions that the user takes to change the world and the feedback the user gets from the world of that action.

  • The gulf of execution is that the user can see they’ve done an action in the world.
  • The gulf of evaluation is the signal the world or system provides back because of that action. Did this action get me closer or further away from my goal?

Discoverability is the way we bridge the gulfs of execution and evaluation.

  • Execution: users can figure out (discover) what actions are possible
  • Evaluation: users can discover whether the actions were successful

Principles supporting discoverability

  • Affordances: the feature of an object or environment that indicates the possibility of action.
  • Signifiers: Message of what will happen if you take this action.
  • Feedback: users need to know that the system heard them and will do something about their action.
  • Constraints: You can only take certain actions.
  • Conceptual Models: support simulation of future actions because they understand how the system is set up.
  • Consistency:  What users learn in one place they can apply to another.
  • Metaphor: Rapidly communicate an idea about a function

Week 3 Nielsen’s Heuristics for Design

There are lots of guidelines for usability but the downside about guidelines is that they are very detailed and very specific. For example, Usability.gov has around 300 guidelines. Created by Nielsen (1994), heuristic evaluations offer an alternative to formal usability testing and are “cheap, fast, and easy to use” (p. 24). Heuristic evaluations are a discount method for highlighting usability issues in a user interface so they can be dealt with as part of the iterative design process (Nielsen, 1994).

Jacob Nielsen’s 10 heuristics cover the most important areas to consider and are generalizable. His list is derived from a systematic review of usability problems, is intended to be small and complete, able to be taught in a few hours and is well-supported by theories of perception and cognition. You can read them in 10 Heuristics for User Interface Design

Week 4 Heuristic Evaluation and Report

Most heuristic evaluations include several segments. The initial segment involves training evaluators to understand Nielsen’s heuristics. The evaluators then conduct their analysis during the second segment. The analysis is then followed by a debrief where the evaluators discuss their findings with each other. The fourth and final part includes evaluators assigning severity ratings to the usability problems (Nielsen, 1994, p. 38).

The Designing for Humans course included most but not all of these segments. I was trained on Nielsen’s heuristics, conducted an analysis of the edX discussion board, and individually assigned severity ratings to the issues. A debriefing on the issues occurred asynchronously in the form of peer reviews of usability problems with other evaluators. The only one of Nielsen’s segments not included in this evaluation is a collaboration among a team of evaluators to agree on the issues together and then assign a severity score. 

You can read my report below.

Report Cover

Review of Sumerian Mythology by Samuel Kramer

I’ve done more reading on ancient Egypt than Sumer and so picked this up wanting to get more background on another equally ancient civilization. I’m sure this book is dated at this point since it was published in the 1960s, nevertheless it was interesting learning about Kramer’s work piecing together myths from different parts of tablets. I especially liked the pictures of the tablets with some transliteration, translation, and introductory commentary about the myths. The repetitive nature of Sumerian poetry reminded me a bit of classical Hebrew. I found the most interesting myth to be the Sumerian flood story. I’ve linked an image from Wikipedia below. Perhaps because of the academic writing style I found this collection a little less engaging than others I’ve read recently, but all-in-all worth the time to review.

Tablet XI or the Flood Tablet of the Epic of Gilgamesh, currently housed in the British Museum in London.jpg
By Osama Shukir Muhammed Amin FRCP(Glasg)Own work, CC BY-SA 4.0, Link

A Review of Stories from Ancient Canaan by Michael David Coogan

This accessible and entertaining book recounts several important mythic stories from ancient Ugarit. Ugarit was a Canaanite city state on the coast of the Mediterranean across from Crete in modern Syria. This book introduced me to several interesting concepts. The first was that Ugaritic was a Semetic language like Biblical Hebrew but written with a cuniaform alphabet. Second, the world did not know much about Ugarit until the 1920s when the tablets from this city were found. Third that the many quotes in the Old Testament reflect the competing religion of the Canaanites and cultural exchange backwards and forwards between the Canaanites and Israelites. In this collection you will read the story of Aqat, Kirta, and Baal. The introductions before the translations are especially helpful. The myths while using repetitive langue are helpful in getting a sense for how the stories may have sounded to people steeped in an oral culture. Worth your time if you are interested in the ancient Near East.

Review of Whats on the Other Side by Brent L Top

It has been a few years since the death of my dad and my mom was reading this book. Partially to get a sense for what she was reading, but also for myself, I read this book. This book is really a compilation of two talks by Brother Top given during Education Week at BYU. The book is short and easy to read. I especially liked the chapter on the immortal spirit. Two of the most comforting aspects for me were that my relatives can see and love me. As well as being aware of what I’m doing. Another affirming thought was that no one dies in life before their time even if it is inopportune. If it happens early it could be they are needed for services in the spirit world. This is a helpful book for any LDS reader grieving the loss of a loved one.

Review of The Sungod’s Journey through the Netherworld Reading the Ancient Egyptian Amduat by Andreas Schweizer

Image of the Amduat Wikipedia

This book was not what I expected, but I’m glad I read it. I was looking for the text of the Amduat. Even though this book did not include the text, the author walked the reader through a 12 hour night journey of the Sungod Re using images drawn from the tomb of Thutmose III. As a practicing Jungian psychologist, Schweizer offers interesting and insightful commentary on what these images may have meant to the Egyptians and could mean for modern readers. As a religious reader, I like Jung’s ideas because he does not discount religious ideas or experiences as being a core part of humanity. This is a deep, philosophical book well worth your time if you like Ancient Egyptian texts and Jungian analysis.

http://www.cornellpress.cornell.edu/book/?GCOI=80140100316790

Review of Cuneiform by Irving Finkel and Jonathan Taylor

https://www.amazon.com/dp/0714111880/ref=cm_sw_r_cp_awdb_t1_bCoCBb4V7DGDY

This is a great book that provides a nice overview of the history of the cuneiform script. I learned that the script was used for at least three different languages. Sumerian, Babylonian (a Semitic language), and Akkadian (a Semitic language). The book describes how the script conveyed consonants and vowels and provides a helpful table of signs so you can write your own. While reading this book I had a chance to go see the Assyrian (Akkadian) Bas-Reliefs at the Bowdoin College of Art. These are from Nimrud and were created for king Assurnasirpal 2 who is described in the book as a soldier and scholar, who added extensive labels called “colophons” to his tablets (p. 54). If you are looking for a brief, well-written introduction to the topic this is the place to start.

A few pictures from Bowdoin

Review of Collier and Manley’s How to Read Egyptian Hieroglyphs A Step – By Step Guide to Teach Yourself Revised Edition

http://a.co/4PLC80b

I’ve had this book since 2005. When I originally purchased the book, it seemed a bit too daunting to me. I started on chapter 1 but got stuck on what I thought was a difficult concept. After completing Manley’s Hieroglyphs for Complete Beginners, this book seemed much more approachable. In May of 2017, I started studying with a free online group called GlyphStudy. As of May 2018, I’ve completed all the exercises in the book. Language study with a group is more motivating than going at it alone. Collier and Manley’s book is not a full grammar but it does teach a lot of vocabulary, various verb forms, cartouches, and focuses on the offering formula. This book is well worth your time. Most of the translation material comes from the British Museum, some of it not on public display. You translate several stela and other objects in the book. Specifically translated are: the roasting scene from the rock tombs at Meir, the Abydos king list, BM EA 586, BM EA 567, BM EA 162, BM EA 585, BM EA 101, BM EA 581, the fishing and fowling scene from Senbi at Meir 1 pl 2, the coffin of Nakhtankh BM EA 35285, BM EA 571, BM EA 1671, BM EA 614, BM EM 143 Stela of Nakhti, and others. If you are interested in translating items you will likely see in museums but don’t want to do a full college-level grammar than this book is great. It provides an answer key in the back which is a great way to check your work. I still think Manley’s other title is where I would start from scratch, but this is the best next step.

Attempt a English in Egyptian Letters

Here is my attempt at the names Collier and Manley and the numbers 2017 in hieroglyphs. I’m adding it to the Stela of Ameny for completing C &M 2017. The letters are Q, L, I, R (and) M, A, N, L, I. 2,000 + 10 + 7.

Collier and Manley 2017
Collier (and) Manley 2017 rendered in most of the Egyptian alphabet.