Category Archives: egyptian literature

Review of The Sungod’s Journey through the Netherworld Reading the Ancient Egyptian Amduat by Andreas Schweizer

Image of the Amduat Wikipedia

This book was not what I expected, but I’m glad I read it. I was looking for the text of the Amduat. Even though this book did not include the text, the author walked the reader through a 12 hour night journey of the Sungod Re using images drawn from the tomb of Thutmose III. As a practicing Jungian psychologist, Schweizer offers interesting and insightful commentary on what these images may have meant to the Egyptians and could mean for modern readers. As a religious reader, I like Jung’s ideas because he does not discount religious ideas or experiences as being a core part of humanity. This is a deep, philosophical book well worth your time if you like Ancient Egyptian texts and Jungian analysis.

Abydos King List

Ex 2.9 for GlyphStudy is to attempt identifying the cartouches on BM EA 117.

Kings first register (top) (right to left)
1. [] ? 
2. []kA
3. []mn-n-kA
4. nfr-kA-[ra] (Pepi 2, 6th Dynasty)
5. nb nfr-kA aAy
6. [Did not have time.]
7. [Did not have time.]
8. [Did not have time.]
9. s-nfr-kA
10. n-kA-ra (8th Dynasty)
11. [kA]-nfr-ra (9th Dynasty)
12. [Xt]-y (9th Dynasty)
13. []-w-ra ? 

Kings second register (middle) (right to left)
1. kAw-ra (12th Dynasty)
2. xa-xpr-ra
3. xa-kAw-ra
4. n-maAt-ra
5. maA-xrw-ra (12th Dynasty)
6. nb-pHt[ty]-ra (18th Dynasty)
7. Dr-[kA]-ra
8. aA-xpr-kA-ra
9. aA-xpr-n-ra
10. mn-xpr-ra
11. aA-xprw-ra
12. mn-xprw-ra
13. nb-maAt-ra
14. Dr-xprw-ra stp-n-ra
15. mn-pHty-ra (18th Dynasty)
16. mn-mAat-ra (19th Dynasty)
17. wsr-mAat-ra (Seti, 19th Dynasty)
18. mry-imn ra-ms-s (Seti, 19th Dynasty)

Missing: The 2nd Intermediate Period kings were not on the list. Also absent from the list are Hat-shepsut, Akhenaten, Tutankhamon, Horemheb, Ay, Nefrusobek and anyone else who was viewed as illegitimate.

I was also surprised that the book: Chronicle of the Pharaohs: The Reign-By-Reign Record of the Rulers and Dynasties of Ancient Egypt (Chronicles)

Was missing many of the names from the 7-8 dynasties. This was likely a time of a lot of turmoil.

A Study of the Ba concept in ancient Egyptian Texts

Some interesting quotes from an article:

Suffice it here to say that on the basis of our study of the major categories of Egyptian texts, we have concluded that the Ba was never considered to be one of the constituent parts of a human composite, the “spiritual” element in man or the “soul” of man, but was considered to represent the man himself, the totality of his physical and psychic capacities. In the Pyramid Texts, the Ba of the deceased king de- notes the manifestation of his power. This meaning was retained through- out Egyptian history but in the later texts is found primarily in connection with the gods and the living king. In the Coffin Texts, the Ba of the de- ceased has been personified and is his alter ego, an agent that performs physical functions for him and is thus one of the modes through which and as which he continues to live.

The Ba which a god possesses is the manifestation of his power. Thus the greater the god, the greater his Ba.

Facsimiles in higher resolution

Just found a nice website with higher resolution versions of the facsimiles posted by Nathan Richardson! At some point I would like to use Rhodes translation and commentary to overlay the facsimiles with their hieroglyphic transcriptions: I will attempt this likely after I complete my dissertation. But unfortunately I could not find larger versions of the facsimiles online until now. Thanks to Nathan Richardson for posting these online.

I’ve added a link to his website for future reference.


The Instructions of HorDjedef (however you transliterate his name)

The instructions of HorDjedef from the Literature of Ancient Egypt edited by William Simpson more background information can be found here:

So the instructions comprise about a paragraph of text but in light of the Family Proclamation to the World sound advice deserves repeating:

Reprove yourself in your own eyes, take care that another man does not reprove you. If you want to be excellent, establish a household and acquire a for yourself a wife who is strong; a male child will be born to you. May you build a house for your son, for [i] have built for you a place where you are. Beautify your house in the necropolis and make excellent your place in the West. Accept (this maxim), death is bitter for us. Accept (this maxim) for life is exalted for us. The house of death is for life. p 340 translated by W.K.S

While there are certainly some distinctly Egyptian themes here, I think the ideas of having a family and building a house are truths we embrace in the gospel. It is a nice reminder that several thousand years ago things weren’t so different. The other interesting thing is that Chapter 137A or the Book of the Dead seems to have been attributed to Hor-Djedef. He was busy or he was popular.